Why Ukrainians totally renounce reading and what it threatens to nation
The Ukrainian people least among Europeans read books. In force of absence of fashion on form (and to the presence of fashion on the lack of education), poverty of libraries and high price on new editions our citizens renounce reading.
On the statistics resulted by a magazine “Correspondent”, every day read the books of 15,3% of our compatriots, at least one time per a week – 18,2%, though one time per a month – 19%, rarer than one time per a month – 21,5%, never – 23,1%, 2,9% was not able to answer. Thus the amount of respondents that did not specify reading in the field of the personal interests exceeded 70%.
Confined the proper state caring the Ukrainian book
Readingof books is a serious factor of intellectual and moral increase of man, without that the spiritual world of personality will be flat and inexpressive. Stimulation of publishing house is the priority vector of public policy in the field of a culture for a that country, that cares of general intellectual level of the people. The Ukrainian state spends in support home stationer very little more a 20 million hrn., and it when the cost of printing-press makes somewhere 120-150 thousand dol. it Goes out so, that business can live by only efforts of patrons of art, that consent to bear loss in behalf on the Ukrainian book. But, being in such suspended permanent suspended state on the favour of unindifferent, she can not provide all necessities of readers.
Problems from financing and general ignoring of cultural necessities are outpoured in subzero quality of that small amount of editions, that however can be found on the shelves of bookstores.
Most books with novels are not only printed to the yellow paper but also have a thin cover, because the coloured printing and binding is traditionally attributed to the digit of «gift editions». If to call on the web-site of one of the most powerful retail salespeople of literature in Ukraine of «empic», then it is possible to see such: the «Doggy heart» of М. Bulgakov in a soft cover costs a 31 hrn.; «Garden of divine songs» of H. Skovoroda has the same cost in binding; for the sonnets of F. Petrarch – the miniature pocket book of matches it will be to expound a 33 hrn.; for «Story of man» of G. Markes will ask a 89 hrn.; and here for the «Dead souls» of М. of Golden-eye it is necessary to pay a 455 hrn., Getting a 1000-2000 hrn., worker of plant or janitor can not give tenth part from a salary on the spiritual necessities. Works of the Ukrainian authors, that had to cost cheaper, yield to nothing on a cost the foreign translated writers. Now and then it is possible to see a not popular Ukrainian-language novel on a yellow paper, that will cost a 80-90 hrn.
Library business inUkrainemore starts yet. In our country there is one library on 96 thousand habitants, at that time as inFranceone library serves 20 thousand people only. Even for our neighbour ofRussiathe methods of decision of similar problem seem more effective: there one library is on 75 thousand persons, what attaining is considerably more difficult, than to Ukrainians, having regard to the amount of the Russian population. Under such circumstances people are not ready to lay out lion’s part of the salaries for literature. Today tradition of reading and talent of books transforms rather not habit of rich men, on an elite culture, than on the norm of life of ordinary citizens.
Degradation of reader tastes
The amount of readers of the press diminishes sharply. The analytical Ukrainian magazine will treat to the customer approximately in 2 dol, at that time, when Poland can purchase a magazine for itself on a motherland only after 1,7 dol, that in 3,3 times, if to compare salaries, less than, than for Ukrainians. The unpopularness of print editions provokes the decline of drawing and passing to the electronic format (in the considerably simplified kind) or complete disappearance. Not having a stimulus to work and do quality materials, the press begins to be oriented on the reader of low intellectual level, what and stimulates the increase of their amount. The Internet-user of print editions re-reads analytical materials rarely, and only viewing ribbon of news, that in no way influences on his spiritual development. The personal interests are young already a long ago lie inplane internet-entertainments that does not need excessive mental efforts or wide circle of interests. The virtual world is oriented on a mass culture, that especially notedly in social networks, on forums and chats. Most discussed are themes of carnal knowledge, popular music andHollywoodfilms, but in no way fiction. On the unspecialized internet-discussions literary subjects collect in ten one times less participants, than all other.
Degradation of reader tastes is observed at the market of artistic book. Today on the first plan it goes out not serious literature, but kitsch. Lada Luzina, authoress that is specialized on simple novels, became the most popular Ukrainian author among compatriots. It answers the general tendency of abandonment from the classics and deepening in entertaining literature. In a subway now rarely will see deepening in works Dostoevsky reader, more often – with a glossy magazine or novel of Dontsova. This is explain the decline of the analytical press in comparing to «yellow». Say, Polish edition of Fakt will nurse drawing 542 thousand copies(with the amount of population in 38 million people). Could boast such volume at one time unless newspaper « Arguments and Facts », today the how hardly not most tirape Ukrainian edition are the «Rural news» – 205 thousand copies, although the Ukrainian population prevails after an amount Polish.
Inconsolable book tendencies and as with them to fight
Here as comments a situation at the publishing market Roman Nekoliak is a lawyer, bibliophile that reads not less than 2000 pages of fiction on a month: «Situation not especially good: absence of state support of publishing business; systems of bookdistribution. My friend, by birth from Crimea, told, that the Ukrainian book for them not to find, except textbooks; the same was told by acquainted from Mariupol; even in Kharkiv it is a few points of sale – bookstore «YE», book market. Through the small drawing a price is high. It is possible to find many wonderful translations of world literature Ukrainian, for example, those that was printed in »Universe« in 70-80рр. A problem is in that publishing houses do not set to use these translations, because it far more easily them to mark the translator of some «P. I. Kozlov» that made «inferior» translation out of Russian (it is conditional «kozlov» can even not exist), a bit correct him, than pay to the translators, or their legal successors».
For popularization of reading a scale social advertisement and social events are not enough. There are permanent attempts of some public motions to instil European book traditions to Ukrainians, as here book-krosing (permanent transferrableness of book other after reading), but they do not have mass character. Such initiatives exist, as a rule, at the level of those people, what interested in reading, but they in no way can pull in it that 70 % populations that does not attribute a book to the sphere of the interests. Complication is also in that inUkraineis very small written about writers, almost nobody wants to engage in the widespread inEuropeanalysis of work and biography. There are only a few specialized editions, where literary portraits are published, what, certainly, not sufficiently for popularization of culture of reading. As a result, total ignorance of the last names and works, disorientation in a world literary process and complete loss of train to literature.
On the whole, a problem of absence of culture of reading is a synthesis of indifference of power, business-interests of publishers and writers and falling of public tastes. In default of demand on literature of bookstore force to put high prices, and producers to give out that low intellectual product that is gladly bought. It goes out that book business festers inUkraine, the Ukrainian writers are unpopular neither on a motherland, in nor the world, because not translated by other languages. And it is today difficult to find a classic even in school libraries. Nadiya is only on that in a country there are people, that unindifferent literature, and that support a home literary process own forces.