The plague of XXI century – so society called the depression. If action is not taken, a few years later the disease will be on the first place among the most common ones. What is depression? How long has mankind suffered this disease? Why it appears more often and whom it follows? The fight with it began thousands of years ago and what we can do about the epidemic now?
A bit of history…
Actually the term “depression” appeared relatively recently – in the XIX century, but began to be widely used around the beginning of the XX century. Earlier, from the time of ancient Greece, there was another word for a depressed state of apathy – “melancholia”, which in Greek means “black bile”. For the first time it was used by Hippocrates.
The famous doctor gave a melancholy two values. First – this is one of the four types of human character. Hippocrates was convinced that prevails in the body melancholic black bile. They “fear of light, avoid encirclement, these people are full of all sorts of dangers…”.
The second concept – melancholy as an illness. And then clear the scientist described the symptoms of this disease, “aversion to food, depression, insomnia, irritability, and anxiety.” Hippocrates was the first to say that the causes of this disease to be found in the human brain, in the consciousness of man. He also suggested that the person may be born with a predisposition to melancholy or get it as a result of severe trauma.
World History knows many cases of sickness depressive disorders great world. Thus, Plutarch describes the episode in the life of a young prince of Antioch, who suffered from severe depression, “Antiochus is in a very depressed state, refuses to eat and dies away before our eyes. His doctor Erazistat suggests that the cause of this condition is the unrequited love of the prince. Then the doctor, his hand on the heart of the young men, invites to approach him in turn all the women who lived in the palace. When approached young prince Stratonice stepmother, young heart beat fast, he trembled, and appeared on his face sweat. Erazizstat told his father about the causes of oppressive melancholy, and he gladly gave the bride to take away the suffering of his beloved son. “
Look into the Middle Ages. At that time, as we know, all the experiences shared by vicious and virtuous. And, interestingly, the Latin word «desperatio» (despair) is not just a state of mind, but evil, sinful doubt in God’s mercy. The same goes for the word «acedia», which meant apathy, spiritual passivity and inactivity.
New times have brought about changes in the concept of “melancholy”. The Renaissance began liberating apathy and depression from a sinful nature. Italian philosopher and scholar Marsilio Ficino speaks of melancholy in a diametrically opposite concept. He points out that “separates the soul from the sorrow of the world and brings it to God.” In addition, Ficino says that creative people are more prone to depression, making deeper and thinner feel the essence of things. And in the XVII century. melancholic temperament became very popular in Europe. In Italy the word “melancholy” and “genius” are almost synonymous.
Concepts that people throughout its existence invested in the word “melancholy” or modern – “depression”, as we can see, the root of change. Changed and how to deal with the disease.
For example, in ancient Greece, even when Hippocrates, depression treated with herbs. The Romans were saved by blood-letting. If a person’s overall health did not allow such a radical treatment, it is a replacement for, have caused nausea, doing massage. Considered necessary in the treatment of the patient to instill good spirits, entertain him to talk to him a pleasant topic.
Strangely melancholy treated in Germany in the XVIII century, Where people are portrayed symptoms as “leaden heaviness in the arms and legs.” The patient was tied to chairs and spinning wheels, considering that central weight will eliminate this problem.
Only in the XIX century. in Europe there were the first treatment with psychotropic drugs. The forerunners of modern antidepressants were cannabis, more commonly known as marijuana, and opium. By the way, Chinese doctors used marijuana for the treatment of depression in III century BC. In 1884, Sigmund Freud tried cocaine for the first time, which resulted in his first major scientific paper “On the spinner.” In those days, the cocaine sold freely in pharmacies and absolutely no idea that he is a highly addictive and he actually introduces man in a depressed state.
Back to the present
Modern man is prone to depression than ever before. Doctors say that depression is today – a consequence of the incredible stress. Such a disorder called psychogenic depression. But the cause of the disease can be any factors – both severe mental trauma, loss, and everyday stuff. And at 2-4% of the people in general depression develops without apparent cause against a background of well-being (endogenous depression).
Another common form of the disease – dysthymia. A person suffering from dysthymia, depression symptoms are mild, he lived with her for years of inertia, without joy, like an automaton, gradually getting used to this state.
It should be noted that most of the CIS countries only recently begun to recognize the disease of depression. Previously, this was not taken seriously ill person was considered a rather unhappy life and creation, which do not feed bread – give complain. Now you can go to the doctor and get advice, because it is treated. But how?..
The most common way to treat the condition of oppression, or vice versa – hyperarousal (the one and the other may be a manifestation of depression) – antidepressants.
Antidepressants – psychotropic drugs used to treat depression. In depressive patients they improve mood, facilitate or take away a feeling of sadness, apathy, anxiety, relieve emotional stress, increase mental alertness, normalize sleep and appetite.
Antidepressants have been invented and began to be used about half a century ago. Since then, scientists have developed and continue to develop these medicines so that their number and variety are increasing exponentially. Annual catalog of new antidepressants reaches 3 cm in thickness. There are several classes and sub-species, which are divided psychotropics depending on what kind of effect they have on the body, the brain, the mind, the moral condition of the person.
The human psyche may never be known until the end. This complex, the most secret and absolutely perfect manifestation in the world. Psychiatrists, psychologists daily deal with a sophisticated mechanism of the human mind and the subconscious. They write a lot of recipes for people with mental disorders. But sometimes it happens that the proposed treatment is wrapped for the man incorrigible consequences.
Antidepressants – serious psychotropic drugs, which always require an individual highly professional approach. Antidepressants will not work right away. The result will be, as a minimum, two, and even four weeks.
Drugs for life?
The most popular psychotropic medicines used to treat depression, bulimia nervosa, obsessive thoughts and other mental disorders – Prozac. In the side effects of the drug indicated that occasionally it can cause seizures seizures. There may have some minor variations. In fact, there are cases where patients taking these drugs began to feel terrible things. For example, a man appeared, as it easily passes through a stream of air, it seemed as if the power flow them, from which the patient, trying to stop the air, tightened the noose around his neck.
Prozac is a drug normalizing the amount of serotonin in the human body (the substance responsible for good mood). Several global pharmaceutical companies produce analogues of Prozac – it’s Paxil, Zoloft, etc. Experiments have shown that is not fully clear how Prozac affects the human brain. However, it is known that it blocks the activity of another substance – dopamine, resulting in a person falls into a state of akathisia (severe itching continuous). This could cause a completely uncontrolled behavior and lead to suicide.
There are cases of suicide among the famous people who have used these drugs. In 1997, rock star Michael Hutchence, the leader of the group INXS, hanged himself in a hotel room on your own belt. As it turned out, he had a few weeks of taking Prozac, being treated for drug addiction and depression. Vice president of sales of a young Tim Vittsak treated Prozac from uncontrollable bouts of fear. He committed suicide five weeks after the start of medication. It was in the state of akathisia.
Another (similar in action) antidepressant – fluoxetine – may increase the likelihood of suicide at the beginning of treatment. It is connected with ultrafast stimulant drug, which occurs before the true effect of antidepressant drugs. So the patient gets enough power and strength to commit suicide.
In general, according to the latest data, the researchers found that taking psychotropic drugs by young people who are under 24 years old, a very detrimental effect on the further development and mental health. It damages the nervous system and leads to irreversible consequences.
Today the depression becomes all the greater rate of disease units in the deadly epidemic. Each year, about 150 million people around the world will no longer run due to this disease. From 45 to 60% of suicides are committed by people on the planet, depressed patients. A person with depression is 35 (!) times more likely to commit suicide than healthy people. It is projected that by 2020 depression will be the exactly number one killer in the world.