Italy… If someone has once visited this wonderful country, he’ll became a hostage of its beauty, and will want to return to this amazing corner of the world again and again and won’t want to leave it.
What is so attractive that country? In one sentence answer to this question does not fit. Italy – a country with an extremely rich history. Italy – the country that gave the world genius of literature, art and science. This country has the oldest universities, scientists and thinkers, the birthplace of Galileo Galilei and Giordano Bruno. This – the cradle of the Renaissance. It worked Dante and Boccaccio, Petrarch, Machiavelli, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, the world still admires the musical masterpieces of Puccini, Vivaldi and Paganini.
Italy – a country where preserved monuments of Roman and medieval architecture. This is the Coliseum and the Pantheon in Rome, and churches by Brunelleschi in Florence, the Palazzo in Venice, Milan monastery of Santa Maria del Grazie the famous fresco “The Last Supper” by Leonardo da Vinci. In many Italian cities entire neighbourhoods are preserved medieval buildings.
What captures the country? Of course, the beauty of its nature – the sunny coast of the Adriatic, Ligurian, Ionian, Tyrrhenian Sea resort with picturesque towns and snowy Alps with the highest point in Western Europe – Mt Blanc and famous ski resorts, many wonderful Mediterranean islands and active volcanoes – Vesuvius and Etna.
Anyone who has travelled to Italy, could not help but mention the hospitality and goodwill of this country. They are happy to answer your questions, talk with enthusiasm about the sights of their city. This is a fun and sociable people.
So, you decided to visit Italy? Then in this article you will find some useful tips that will prove useful in your journey – information on local attractions, history and culture, as well as on public transport. I hope that the article you see before you, you will need not only during the holidays, but also bring pleasure.
So, welcome to Italy!
Heir of the Roman Empire
The rich history of Italy begins about 500 BC, when the foundations were laid the mighty Roman Empire, which occupied the V century AD vast areas of Europe, Asia Minor and North Africa. At the end of V century modern Italy was conquered by the Germans – the Goths, and Ostrogoths – ruled that it was several centuries.
Toward the close of the Middle Ages in Italy have a rich city-states existed peacefully until the middle of the XV century, when the neighboring countries began a series of wars over the peninsula. In 1861 the King of Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel II proclaimed the creation of a unified state, of which, however, has not included the Rome and Venice. By 1870 the country’s borders took almost a modern look, and in July 1871 Rome became the capital of united Italy.
In 1924, to come to power in Italy Mussolini’s fascist regime, which lasted until 1943, when Mussolini was executed by partisans and allied troops entered Rome. In June 1946 the King of Italy abdicated and left the country, which soon was proclaimed a republic. Since 1944, political life in Italy proceeded very rapidly, which shows frequent (sometimes two or three times a year) the resignation of the government. Today, Italy is a member of the UN and specialized agencies of the organization, NATO, EU, OSCE, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Museum of the civilization
Since ancient times, Italy is famous for its rich cultural traditions. The achievements of the Italians in the art, architecture, literature, music and science had an enormous impact on the culture of many countries.
Long before the rise of civilization of ancient Rome there was culture in Tuscany Etruscans and the Greeks in southern Italy. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the cultural development of the peninsula fell into decay, and only in the XI century, there were signs of revival. His new Italian culture reached peak in the XIV century. During the Renaissance, the Italians played a leading role in European science and art. Then worked such prominent painters and sculptors as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Michelangelo, the writers Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio.
They rewrote the science
In Italy, famous for its academic tradition, which evolved over the centuries. Among the outstanding scientists of the past can be distinguished founders of modern physics of Galileo and Evangelista Torricelli, researchers electricity Alessandro Volta and Luigi Galvani, the founders of modern molecular theory of gases, Amedeo Avogadro and inventor Guglielmo Marconi wireless telegraph. During the fascist dictatorship of the development of science in Italy stopped a little when the left the country, some prominent scientists, including Nobel Prize in Physics Enrico Fermi. Until recently, science has not received extensive financial support from the government, private foundations and industrial companies. But now the government through the National Research Council has adopted a program to provide financial assistance to the country’s scientific institutions for research projects.
Italy is famous for inventions which are not directly related to the natural sciences, but it would have been impossible without the fundamental scientific and technical knowledge of their creators. For example, an Italian chemist, Gian Maria Farina first started the production of cologne.
Among the many devices, the inventors were the Italians, there is a technical device, which we have almost no use, but the importance of this invention, there is no doubt. We are talking about the typewriter. The idea of creating such a device appeared in the XVIII century. The working sample of a typewriter was created Pellegrino Italian Tour in 1808 for his blind friend Countess Carolina Fantoni de Fivizzono.
Fans of figure skating, perhaps, be surprised to learn that the ice machine to fill the Italian Franco Dzamboni invented in 1949, and many coffee lovers will be interested in the fact that the creator of the machine for espresso is the Milanese Achille Haji bartender.
Homeland of culinary world brand
During the trip, we can not taste the Italian cuisine world famous cuisine. The Italian people gave their dishes specific features that put it in a unique and original taste of food. A variety of Italian cuisine will not leave indifferent neither gourmet nor supporters of the “healthy” food.
The basis of almost all the national dishes – pastry, vegetables, cheese, herbs and olive oil. Italians are willing to use natural meat, but avoid fatty pork. The most common meats are beef escalopes with great sauces and stews – grilled until golden brown large piece of meat, which is then stewed in tomato sauce. It should be noted that the sauces in Italian cuisine accompanied by almost any dish.
The Italians are very fond of fish and seafood. Mostly dishes made from sea fish – flounder, salmon, tuna. Among the popular seafood lobster, octopus, oysters, sea snails, caviar in stock – all this you will be happy to be served to the table.
Finally, a characteristic feature of Italian cuisine – extensive use of pasta. One should not forget about the pizza, which is a kind of culinary branded Italy. Since the peninsula is a dish on the menu has removed much of the world, but in Italy is popular mainly among tourists.
Antiquity and the Renaissance in Italy left a rich legacy in many cities you can see the world-famous buildings and architectural masterpieces. In Rome, this is undoubtedly the magnificent Pantheon – an ancient temple, built in 27 BC, the Colosseum, built in 80 AD. and several triumphal arches in honor of Roman emperors and generals, Roman and Imperial Forums, the baths of Caracalla, the catacombs, which sought shelter from the persecution of early Christians, the fort Castel Sant’Angelo, originally built as a mausoleum of Emperor Hadrian, and rebuilt in the Middle Ages to strengthen the defense of the city, the Basilica of St. John’s Lutheran, St. Paul, St. Peter in Chains, which is located inside a marble statue of Moses by Michelangelo. This brings to mind the famous Piazza Navona with three fountains – one of Dzhanlorentso Bernini, Trevi Fountain – the largest in Rome, executed in the Baroque style, where tourists usually drop coins. Rome is also famous for the Church of Trinita del Monte, a large number of museums and galleries: Capitoline Museum, National Museum of Villa Giulia (here, has a collection of objects of Etruscan and Roman Art), Gallery Borges (painting and sculpture), the National Roman Museum (ancient Greek and Roman sculpture) , medieval palaces, which also operated museums and galleries.
In Milan, should visit the Gothic Cathedral, whose construction was begun in 1386 and completed in 1965, the Dominican monastery, in the refectory of which is the famous fresco of Leonardo da Vinci’s “Last Supper”, the Brera Art Gallery, several art museums and the Opera House La Scala.
Venice, situated on 122 islands, 170 canals which intersect, is famous for its bridges, the most famous of which, perhaps, is the “Bridge of Sighs,” by which criminals go after the court of the Doges. In this city you can see the Cathedral of St. Mark, the Palace of the Doges of Venice, granite column, erected in 1180, one of which depicts a winged lion of St. Mark (the patron saint of Venice), on the other – St. Theodore, sitting astride a crocodile.
Florence, the center of the Italian Renaissance can offer tourists to visit the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, designed in Gothic style and decorated with red, green and white marble, the XIV century bell tower, the Baptistery of San Giovanni, which is famous gilded bronze doors and the doors of the East, are decorated with sculpted scenes from the Old Testament are called “gates of Paradise.” In Florence, you can look at the National Museum, which houses a collection of sculptures by Donatello, visit the Fountain of Neptune, the Palazzo Vecchio, the Uffizi Gallery, where you can see one of the largest collections of Italian artists, the gallery with the works of Raphael Pitti, Perugino, Titian, Tintoretto, tomb the Medici family with a marble bas-relief by Michelangelo, the Medici palace, Riccardi, which is a museum Medici, the monastery of San Marino, which is located in the museum of Angelico and Bartolommeo, as well as the philosopher of Savonarola’s cell; Archaeological Museum, the Franciscan church of Santa bitter than that painted by Giotto’s brush. It is called the Pantheon of Florence because it buried Michelangelo Buonarroti, philosopher and politician Niccolo Machiavelli and composer Gioacchino Rossini.
To make your stay in Italy was not only interesting, but also comfortable, you need to know a lot of useful things. For example, all forms of public transport tickets are the same. One trip for 75 minutes after composting ticket allows you to make connections to any other form of transport. The metro ticket so you can use only once. There are also tickets for the day, week, month, year. In the bus tickets are not sold – they can be purchased at newsstands, tobacco shops, some bars. Boarding the bus through the front and rear doors, and out – through the medium.
“Shippatore” and “bourbons” strike back
The danger for the Italian tourist on the streets may be “shippatore” – young men on motorcycles who pull you out of the hands of the bag, camera or camcorder and disappear from sight before you have time to scream.
One of the passions of Italians – a strike. If you are planning a trip on a particular day, try to find out whether appointed on that date the next strike.
To avoid an awkward situation, in a conversation with the unfamiliar Italian avoid too harsh judgments about a particular region of Italy, as residents of various localities are very jealous of their places.
Not all areas of the Italian cities prosperous. It is best to avoid walking in the evenings and at night near the railway station, central bus stations. In Italy, there are also homeless, who are called “Bourbon.” They better not be bothered.